The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a predator in the canine family (Canidae), and a domesticated subspecies of the wolf. There are more than 400 species, varying in appearance and size. It is a subspecies of the gray wolf and is also closely related to foxes and jackals. Together with cats, they are one of the two most widely distributed and widely fed domestic animals in the world. According to recent estimates, more than 900 million dogs live in the world.
Dogs have been hunting partners, protectors and companions of mankind for more than 12 millennia. Humankind has played an important role in the evolution of different dog breeds according to different needs. The first dogs were hunting dogs with keen eyesight and sense of smell. Since their first meeting, humans have emphasized the various beneficial features of dogs with the most primitive forms of genetic engineering, leading to the emergence of different dog breeds. For example, when livestock were domesticated 7-9 thousand years ago, dogs also started herding and were artificially selected to do so.
The functions and perceptions of dogs differed from one society to another. In ancient Egypt, dogs were considered sacred. Today, in many countries they are used as guards, in some as beasts of burden and even as food. In Western countries, dogs are often kept as housemates and companions. In addition, products and services for dogs have become a multi-billion pound industry in these countries. In addition, dogs can be trained for more sophisticated tasks such as assisting the disabled, search and rescue, or as police dogs.
Dogs with purebred ancestors for three generations are considered purebred. There are about 400 purebred dog breeds in the world. There are many dog clubs that set the standards for purebred dog breeds and register members of these breeds. The Foxhound Kennel Stud Book, published in the United Kingdom in 1844, is one of the oldest dog records in the world. The American Kennel Club (AKC) has registered 36 million dogs since it was founded in 1884. Approximately 1.25 million dogs are added to this figure every year.
According to AKC records, the Labrador retriever is the most popular breed in the USA. Some of the most popular breeds statistically are the German shepherd, Yorkshire terrier, golden retriever and beagle.
Different countries’ dog clubs group and name breeds in different ways. For example, the United Kennel Club (UKC) divides dogs into 8 groups, the American Kennel Club (AKC) and The Kennel Club (TKC), based in the United Kingdom, divide them into 7 groups, and the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI), based in Belgium, divides them into 10 groups. The main dog groups generally recognized by dog clubs around the world are: hunting dogs, hounds, terriers, working dogs, sheepdogs and ornamental dogs.
Genetic and physical characteristics
Hundreds of dog breeds around the world come in a wide variety of colors and shapes. All dogs have 39 pairs (78) of chromosomes. Just like the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans, each pair of chromosomes in dogs is made up of one chromosome from the mother and one from the father.
Except for those born without a tail, dogs have 319 bones in their body. Their muscle and tendon structure is similar to that of humans, but the upper part of their body – unlike in humans – is as strong as the lower part. Body weight is distributed almost equally between the front and hind legs. Dogs walk on their toes, unlike animals such as bears, which walk on the whole foot and put their weight on the heel. Unlike humans, they do not have collarbones.
Dogs are mammals. Females have glands in their udders and nurse their puppies. Most dog breeds usually have eight nipples, but there may be more or fewer – rarely a single digit.
The dentition of all carnivores is similar. Dogs first grow baby teeth (28 pieces), then permanent teeth (42 pieces). The pointed canines, two at the top and two at the bottom, are longer than the other teeth. As in all carnivores, dogs’ teeth are high-crowned and sharp. These teeth are used as weapons as well as for tearing meat and are different from the large teeth of herbivores, which are used for grinding. Dogs don’t usually use their teeth to grind food and swallow their food without chewing. Puppies have a painful teething process. Their gums hurt and swell, sometimes they lose their appetite and have diarrhea.
The first dog breeds had erect ears and pointed noses, like today’s northern breeds. Today, dog breeds come in a wide variety of sizes and structures. Dogs are running animals. Most breeds have the musculature, shoulders and hip bones to be good runners. The Afghan Hound, for example, is capable of chasing prey over stony terrain and turning in short distances. The German Shepherd looks like it is flying when it runs, but at least one of its feet is always on the ground. The greyhound, which can sprint very quickly, has an extremely flexible spine and all four feet are off the ground when it runs. The short legs of the badger-hunting dachshund allow it to enter badger holes and stalk its prey.
The dog’s body is largely covered with hair – except for some hairless breeds – and they are homeothermic (able to regulate their body temperature) animals. The normal body temperature (in the rectum) of an adult dog is 38 – 39.2°C (100.5 – 102.5°F). Dogs can have fur in a wide variety of colors and lengths. There are dog breeds that are almost completely hairless, such as the hairless Chinese dog. Especially those with light-colored coats and hairless breeds are at risk of sunburn if they are in the sun for long periods of time.
Dogs, like humans, have five senses. The most developed of these is the sense of smell. Although there are differences between breeds, all dogs have a well-developed sense of smell and are much better than humans. Some breeds, such as German Shepherds, have a better sense of smell than others and, with special training, can be used in jobs such as finding drugs and pulling victims out of caves. Short-nosed breeds, such as the Pag, have a relatively underdeveloped sense of smell. The sense of taste in dogs is less developed than in humans.
Dogs’ vision is not as well developed as their sense of smell. They usually see better than humans in the dark, but not as well as humans in strong light. Dogs have poor color perception, sharpness adjustment and distance determination. Since their eyes are closer to the sides, they have a wider field of vision than humans. Breeds that need to select game at long distances, such as Afghan hounds, have better horizon vision than other breeds. Dogs have a membrane in their eyes known as the third eyelid. It protects the pupils from harmful substances.
The lifespan of dogs varies from breed to breed. In the 20th century, thanks to advances in nutrition and veterinary medicine, the average dog lifespan has increased significantly. The average life expectancy of dogs in Europe and America is 12.8 years. In general, small breeds live longer than large breeds. For example, the average lifespan of a bulldog is 6.7 years, while that of a miniature poodle is 14.8 years. The lifespan of dogs depends on their hereditary traits, as well as care, nutrition, exercise, stress and wear and tear from work. According to Guinness, the recorded dog that has lived the longest is an Australian cattle herding dog born in 1910 who lived 29 years and 5 months.
Dogs take 6-12 months to reach sexual maturity and 2 years to reach social maturity. Small breeds reach sexual maturity earlier than large breeds. The bitches of large breeds are usually in heat for the first time at 8-9 months of age. Bitches have their first period between 6 and 18 months of age, and then this process occurs approximately twice a year. Exceptionally, only the African basenji breed has one period per year and has one litter.
The male dog reaches sexual maturity at about 6 months and can mate continuously from then on. Larger breeds may take a little longer to reach sexual maturity. The male dog produces much more sperm than the eggs laid by bitches during estrus and will try to mate at every opportunity until old age. Small dogs such as Yorkshire terriers give birth to 2-3 puppies in one litter. Larger breeds can have 10-12 puppies in one litter. The dog with the highest number of puppies in one litter is a Neapolitan mastiff in the United Kingdom, which gave birth to 24 puppies in 2004.
Dogs’ eggs remain fertilizable for about 48 hours. Sperm can live in the reproductive organs of the bitch for several days. Pregnancy lasts 63 days. 25 days after fertilization, veterinarians can tell if a dog is pregnant by examining the abdomen. An ultrasound can also give good results at this time. Pregnancy can also be detected by X-rays taken about 40 days after fertilization. Most dogs give birth normally. However, some ornamental dogs and dogs with large heads in proportion to their body size may require a caesarean section to deliver a live puppy.
The bitch’s estrus period lasts 18-21 days. The first stage of this period, proestrus, begins with a slight swelling of the vulva and bloody discharge. Prooestrus normally lasts 9 days, but there are cases when it lasts 2-3 days. During this period, the bitch is attracted to males but rejects those who try to mate with her. In the second stage, estrus, the amount of bloody waste decreases and becomes pink in color. The vulva expands and softens and at this stage the female is ready to mate. This phase normally lasts 3-4 days, but can last up to 11 days. The bitch can accept males for another 1-2 days after the end of the period when fertilization can take place. To ensure that fertilization occurs at the optimal time, vets can take blood and tissue samples from the vagina and test them throughout the estrous cycle.
When estrus ends (around day 14) the last phase of the cycle, diestrus, begins. The bloody waste darkens in color, the vulva returns to its normal size and the female rejects males. When the bleeding and swelling completely disappear, the estrous cycle is complete. Diestrus lasts 60-90 days if the female is not pregnant, or until birth if she is pregnant. The interval from the end of the cycle or after giving birth until the next heat is called anoestrus.
The period after the bitch has had her first 2-3 heat cycles is considered the best breeding time for dogs. Bitches fertilized before the age of five have a less problematic pregnancy and birth. The number of bitches decreases with age. After 7 years of age, bitches usually have small abdomens and may have problems during labor. Experts advise against breeding bitches older than 7 years. As male dogs age, the amount and mobility of their sperm decreases.
Dogs are social creatures. That’s why they prefer to live with people or other dogs than alone. According to experts, the dog is a pack animal, like its ancestor the wolf. Although they have been used to living with humans for thousands of years as a result of selective breeding by humans, according to some seminal studies conducted in the 1950s and 60s, dogs that are cut off from contact with humans from an early age prefer to live with dogs than with humans.
Dogs, like wolves, are territorial animals. Wolves, being wild and predatory animals, can claim dominance over very large territories. Dogs, on the other hand, are usually limited to the environment in which their owner lives. The male dog marks his territory with his scent by crawling on the ground, walls, trees and leaving urine. Strangers who meet in neutral territory greet each other by sniffing, crawling, wagging their tails and striking a unique pose. However, females may also attack other dogs in the neutral zone to protect their offspring. Males usually urinate by lifting one of their hind legs, while bitches urinate in a crouch.
The sounds they make
Dogs have a wide repertoire of barks, growls and howls that they use to communicate. Many owners can tell if their dog is happy, sad, hungry, scared, hurt, bored, etc. by the sounds it makes. An indication that puppies are becoming independent individuals is when they start barking while playing with other puppies in the litter. Dogs growl when they are scared and cornered. Some breeds, especially greyhounds, have been artificially selected to howl in pursuit of prey. Some northern breeds, such as the Siberian husky (Haski), howl rather than bark.
Puppies are born blind, deaf and completely dependent on their mother. The mother instinctively nurses and protects her babies. Most of the time, she does not let anyone close to the puppies except the person she trusts the most. After 10-14 days, the puppies’ eyes and ears open. The puppies discover their baskets and siblings and do not like to be taken away from their familiar environment. This 20-day period is the first of the four most critical stages in dog development. During this period, the mother starts to leave the puppies alone for short periods of time.
From the third week onwards, the curious puppies begin to explore the world outside the basket. During this period, human contact is very important if they are to become pet dogs in the future. Dogs that don’t bond with people during this period will never become complete pets and housemates and will be very difficult to train. However, between 3-7 weeks, puppies should continue to communicate with their mother and siblings. During this period, the mother starts to feed the puppies by removing their own food, does not breastfeed them whenever they want and weans them gradually. From the fourth week onwards, puppies can be given soft foods such as boiled meat. From the sixth week onwards, puppies begin to socialize and respond to attention.
The third critical stage in a dog’s development is between weeks 7 and 12. Experts consider this period to be the most productive in terms of human-dog bonding. During this period, the puppy’s innate pack instinct, which plays a very important role in its development during the period spent with its mother and siblings in the womb, can be directed from animals to humans. The owner can teach the dog that he is the leader of the pack. The dog can easily learn simple commands without much repetition.
The fourth and final critical stage is weeks 12-16. The puppy declares its independence from its mother and is brave enough to venture into unfamiliar environments. Puppy training can be started during this period when the puppy is developing rapidly physically and mentally. Permanent teeth begin to erupt and puppies can be easily distracted as they are sometimes hurt because of this. If they are not given teething toys, they will chew furniture and other hard objects around them. During this period, some puppies may be reluctant to listen to commands and be trained.
Dogs’ personality development continues until they reach maturity. Dogs, like humans, reach sexual maturity before they reach emotional maturity. In wolves, sexual development and personality development are completed more harmoniously. At 7-8 months of age, dogs suffer from anxiety, show signs of low self-esteem and fear of strangers. If the problem is not hereditary, the symptoms disappear within a few months. If there is a hereditary problem, not only is the disorder persistent, but it can also be exacerbated over time.
As a result of the artificial selection of certain traits over generations, different dog breeds have developed different behaviors. In a rough classification, hunting dogs, for example, are adventurous, following scents and running away from their owners. However, they are very agile when called. Hounds, on the other hand, are more aloof and independent. They watch their territory on their own and go to check if they notice any movement or scent. They are not as fond of human company as bird dogs.
Working dogs and sheepdogs exhibit work-oriented behavior. Collies, for example, are instinctively inclined to herd children, ducks and even each other. Guard dogs start protecting their territory from an early age. Collies and Akitas are famous for their extreme loyalty. Terriers were bred to catch rodents. Therefore, they are very active and lively dogs. Newfoundlands are famous for their life-saving instincts. The breed also determines how they react to a new environment or a new owner. Cross-breeds also have their own unique characteristics that differ from their purebred ancestors.
Nutrition and health
Dogs are considered omnivores with a strong preference for meat. They have the sharp, pointed teeth and short gastrointestinal tract of carnivores, which are more suited to the consumption of meat than plant foods. But dogs can also digest starch and glucose. Pronounced carnivores such as cats cannot.
Dogs, in the process of thousands of years, managed to adapt to the lifestyles of humans and ate their food scraps. They therefore thrive on a variety of foods, both meat and vegetable. Dogs’ ability to digest carbohydrates is considered a key difference from wolves.
The nutritional requirements of dogs vary with activity, with breed, age and ambient temperature. The energy requirement of an animal in normal activity is around 500 kJ per kilogram of metabolic weight. This can go up to 4200 kJ per kilogram of metabolic weight per day in highly active animals, such as sled dogs. Too much food and too little exercise can lead to obesity.
Dogs usually live on special dog food, many varieties of which are on the market, often in the form of kibble or canned food. This is mostly tailored to the nutritional needs of dogs. Supplements to this are unnecessary and often have a negative effect. For example, the addition of calcium can lead to bladder stones and bone abnormalities. Some dog owners feed their dogs “raw food” or “BARF,” with raw meat and bones as a base. Other dog owners feed their dog vegan food. Research shows that vegan dog food is adequate or even often healthier. Anno 2022 there are several manufacturers marketing balanced non-meat based dog food.
Dogs sometimes tend to eat their own poop or that of other dogs or animals, a phenomenon called coprophagy. Possibly this behavior has to do with the desire to keep the litter clean, possibly it is behavior that dogs have developed to obtain food in times of scarcity
Diseases in dogs
In addition to genetic disorders, several acquired diseases and disorders occur in dogs. Notable diseases involve disorders of the coat and digestion (diarrhea). Parasites can play a role in this. Examples include fleas, ticks, various types of worms, and mites that cause mange and puppy scabies. Parasites can also transmit various types of dangerous viruses, bacteria protozoa and other animals (such as heartworm) to dogs.
In dogs, similar diseases can occur as in humans, such as, in addition to the conditions already mentioned, for example diseases of lungs and respiratory tract (kennel cough), joints and skeleton (hernia, Wobbler syndrome), muscles, sexual organs, heart, brain (epilepsy), kidneys and bladder (cystitis), hearing (ear infection), vision (eye infection, cataracts), smell, teeth and problems with immune system, blood, hormones (cushing) and behavior.
A disease also dangerous to humans is rabies.
Communication and education
Dogs communicate with humans through barking and growling. Growling also occurs in wildlife, especially in other canine species, such as wolves and foxes. This system is designed to protect themselves from (potential) dangers and situations that appear threatening. New research has shown that dogs probably developed the system of barking in order to communicate with humans. The wolf, from which the dog is descended, does not bark. Wolves only howl and growl. This research has also shown that humans usually understand this system as well.
There are different barks for each type of situation. For example, the dog has a bark for when his or her master comes home again; cheerful in other words. A bark for when the dog is playing, when someone is breaking in or when he is really attacking someone.
Dogs also have their own body language and use it for communication with other dogs as well as with humans.
Human to dog communication
Humans usually adapt their language to some extent when talking to a dog. Most humans communicate with a dog in their own language; research has shown that language does not affect a dog. Dogs listen only to tones such as aa, ee, oe, oo, ie and so on; if one says “sit, down, paw” the dog is most likely to hear “ì, à, oo.” When a language differs from the language in which the dog learned commands, this can cause confusion. However, this is not common, since most humans also use body language. Unlike wolves, dogs are very focused on people’s body language and, if applied consistently, usually catch on quickly. This starts as a puppy. People, provided they take a correct and consistent approach, can usually communicate with their dogs effortlessly. For example, dogs understand when an object is silently pointed out by a human. They are also able to seek help from humans with a characteristic questioning look, sometimes accompanied by a typical bark. For example, when they cannot reach something. This behavior is completely alien to wolves, even if they are tame. The language level used to communicate with dogs is often similar to that of children or infants.
Dogs are often used as talking points by humans, who use them to express their emotions. A dog is very good at sensing into people’s emotions and psyche. There are assistance dogs that are specially trained to help PTSD patients and also help for epilepsy patients.
People often develop their own tricks to make dogs listen better, based on conditioned reflex.
Education by humans
Because there are so many different dog breeds, there are no general rules for raising dogs by humans. However, there are some rules of thumb. Dog owner associations and commercial dog schools provide tips or training. The rules of thumb can be summed up in a few words: socialization, patience, attention, rewards, commands, consistency and safety.
Dog and society
The dog as a status symbol
Already in Ancient Egypt, among the Etruscans and in Roman times, some dogs were seen as status symbols. A good example for Ancient Egypt is the Tesem. In written history, the Tesem is the oldest domesticated dog. Two dogs hunting a gazelle are depicted on a disc that dates to about 4000 B.C. and at least predates the first dynasty. The dog, especially the hunting dog, played an important role in the daily life of kings and noblemen in Ancient Egypt. In 1935, the Harvard-Boston expedition, led by George Reisner, found an inscription depicting the burial of the dog Abuwtiyuw in the large cemetery west of the Pyramid of Cheops at Giza. The burial went with all the honors normally accorded to Egyptian nobility and this at the command of the Egyptian kings. Like the Egyptian nobles, the dog was constantly in the king’s company, and when he died, the king solemnly ordered that he be buried in his own tomb. The dog held a much more important position in Egypt than the cat. In ancient Tibet, Buddhist monks in the monastery believed that if the owner of a pug died, his soul would migrate into the doggie. Because of this, the little dogs were given extra pampering by the other monks.
Also during the Middle Ages, people regarded the dog as a status symbol. This encouraged the creation of dog breeds that were bred for size, length, color, shape of the head, behavior and cuddliness. New dog breeds were often named after the region, country or owner where or by whom it was bred.
Today, there is a new way to assign status to dogs. Especially in Hollywood, dog clothing is very popular. Many actors, singers, rappers and other stars give their dogs expensive dog clothes, such as Paris Hilton and her chihuahua Tinkerbell. There are also special dog jewelry, beds, sunglasses and shoes.
The dog as an assistance animal
For thousands of years, dogs have performed a variety of functions for humans. For example, dogs have long been status symbols and companion animals. In addition, there are hunting dogs, assistance dogs, herding dogs, police dogs, rescue dogs, fire dogs, draft dogs, polar dogs, guard dogs, fighting dogs and assisted dogs in times of war and dogs are used as laboratory animals and food.
One function for which dogs were probably used for the longest time was hunting. Native Americans and African tribes are known to have used dogs during hunting. Fox hunting is an ancient British tradition that was practiced primarily by the aristocracy. Many monarchs also hunted and hunted with dogs, such as King Charles III. These dogs have a good hunting instinct and can hunt well with people.
Dogs have been used for centuries as assistance animals with people with disabilities. One well-known one is the guide dog. The first guide dog school was established during World War I in Germany. Its purpose was to serve as mobility to bring back blind veterans. The second school, called Seeing Eye, came in 1929 in New Jersey, United States. Two years later also came the “British Guide Dog Association.” A guide dog is an example of an assistance dog. Other assistance dogs are signal dogs, ADL dogs and Seasonal alert dogs.
Shepherding dogs are used in herding livestock, mainly by sheep herders. As a sport, sheep herding is mainly practiced in England, Scotland and Ireland. Several breeds are used for this work, including large, short-haired German and Malinois shepherds, and the smaller, long-haired Scottish collies, Groenendaelers and border collies.
Dogs are also used by the police. A distinction is made between surveillance dogs, tracking dogs and AOT dogs. Surveillance dogs assist in daily surveillance or Mobile Unit operations. Tracking dogs are used to detect human scent, drugs, explosives and fire accelerants. AOT dogs are used by apprehension and support teams (AOT).
Rescue dogs have been around for centuries. Rescue dogs such as the Bernese Mountain Dog and the Saint Bernard were used in the Alpine mountains to track and rescue people from the snow. Nowadays, people rarely use traditional mountain dogs but almost exclusively German shepherds.
Firefighters also use rescue dogs, called fire dogs. Firefighting dogs are taught to climb steep ladders.
Until the 1920s, the dog cart was fairly common on the streets. The pulling power of the dog appeared to serve man well. It is known from paintings and all kinds of other sources that dog carts were already appearing on Dutch streets around 1675. The definitive breakthrough of the draft dog and the dog cart dates to about 1800 in the Netherlands. From Belgium and Germany, France, Norway and Switzerland, among others, it is known that dog wagons were also used from that time until around 1950. In Denmark, working with dog and dogcart was not allowed and in Paris it was already banned around 1824. England banned the use of the dog as a draught dog from 1855.
Man made the dog work for himself in harness in front of, under or behind the cart. One of the reasons for using this animal was that the dog was a cheaper work force than the horse, for example. Those who could not afford horsepower used the energy of the dog as a means of transportation. Dogs pulled not only carts but also plows and even draft barges. The dog was usually cheap to buy and did not make high demands on its food, shelter and care, among other things. The animal usually settled for what the “pot schafte”; its meal consisted mainly of food scraps, bread, vegetables and offal.
Several breeds of dogs, as well as mongrels, performed work with the dog cart. They are mainly the ancestors of today’s well-known dog breeds such as: bouviers, Great Danes, German shepherds, Groenendaelers, Dutch shepherds, Pyrenean mountain dogs, sennen dogs and Siberian huskies. The extinct Belgian dog breed Matin Belge was also used as a draft dog.
Many northern peoples from Lapland, Greenland, Iceland and Canada have used dogs to pull sleds for centuries. The old-fashioned eskimo sled is pulled by 10 to 15 polar dogs. The dogs can cover 80 km in one day.
Guard dogs have been around for thousands of years. Guard dogs are used by people to guard a particular area or building, such as homes, businesses, yards or agricultural area. The Romans used many guard dogs. Many medieval castles also ran these types of dogs. Almost all dogs can be used as guard dogs. Even the chihuahua is known to be watchful, in miniature versions. In history, especially the nobility had guard dogs. Julius Caesar seemed to favor the mastino napoletano.
Dog fights have existed for a very long time. Dog fights are usually organized for the entertainment of humans. The Romans used large dogs in arenas to tear apart Christians, among others. Money could also be made from them. Dog fighting is now banned in most Western countries because it is associated with a lot of animal suffering. Dogs are abused both mentally and physically to make them vicious and aggressive to fight other dogs. During dog fighting, dogs suffer severe scars. Trial dogs are also used as aggression tools to make fighting dogs practice fighting. Although dog fighting is taboo these days, some try to show it as a tough occupation.
Dogs at war
Dogs have been used in war for thousands of years. The Romans used the mastino napoletano a lot in war. Alexander the Great also took many dogs with him during his wars.
Anti-tank dogs are dogs with explosives on their backs; they are trained to dive under enemy tanks, setting off the explosives. They were trained in Russia during World War II to help fight Nazi tanks. But because they had practiced on Russian tanks, the dogs ran at the Russian tanks on the battlefield instead of at the enemy. The German army quickly learned of these hundmines. Russian dogs were henceforth shot because they might carry explosives. This left few dogs left on the Eastern Front, making the use of dogs as a surprise weapon even more unlikely. After the war, more efficient and easier methods were introduced.
Dogs as pets
The relationship between humans and dogs is often characterized by the strong emotional bond. Dogs have long been a popular pet and the first pet throughout the history of the world. No animal in the world is as close to humans as dogs. Dogs are also often called man’s best friend. Many people take a dog as a pet to guard the house, but mostly because a dog is seen as a true friend who would never let humans down. Research has shown that dogs can emulate emotions that have never occurred to any other animal. Thus, in terms of emotions, dogs can feel exactly what their owner is feeling. Dogs are also the most intelligent pet.
Dogs as laboratory animals
Experiments on animals, including dogs, have been occurring for years; Exactly what experiments dogs are used for is not clear. This information is kept secret. Broadly speaking, however, it is known what the animals were used for. Many dogs were used to develop vaccines or drugs. Many dogs were also used in education. Precise information about this drug research or education is not given. With this, it also remains unclear whether the research with dogs could not have been conducted in a different way.
The communist Soviet Union also used so-called space dogs such as space dog Laika, launched from Baikonur on Nov. 3, 1957, to test the viability of artificial moons. Laika died of overheating and stress after only a few hours in space, before the fourth orbit was over.
Dogs as food
In some Asian countries, some dogs are bred in farms and then slaughtered for food. In Korea, dog meat is used in medical soup. Sometimes conflicts arose between Western dog lovers and dog meat eaters. For example, it was in the news that during the 2002 FIFA World Cup in Korea, the Korean government called for severely restricting the use of dog meat because it bothered Westerners considerably. In the Philippines, dog meat was provided to combat famine.
In China, chowchows were sent to storerooms of families to guard, when there was a severe food shortage, the dogs were slaughtered for food. In China’s Yunnan province, live dogs are sold in markets for food. Since the time of Confucius, the dog was highly valued in China. But the philosopher Mencius called dog meat the tastiest of all meats. In traditional Chinese medicine, a dog’s penis is considered an aphrodisiac and is therefore served in some restaurants.